Pathogens

630Bacteria: Salmonella, E.coli-infection, typhi/paratyphi, cholera etc.

Viruses: Calici-, Rotavirus infections, viral hepatitis (HepA és E),

infantile paralysis (Poliomyelitis), stb.

Other: worms, protozoon-infections

631

Of those listed above, practically eradicated in Hungary:
typhi/paratyphi, cholera, poliomyelitis (vaccination!)

Pathogens generally locate in the bowels of the patient (or carrier) and leaves the host body during defecation!

 Transmission

  • 632by direct contact

→ dirty hand, contaminated objects (eg. toilet’s door-handle)

  • orally, transmitted by water, milk or other foods

→ eg. common transmitting foods in the case of Salmonella:

– foods containing eggs, milk

– not properly cooked/roasted meats

– unwashed vegetables

  • flies may also transmit them (eg. typhi)

 Prevention

  • 634by following some simple personal, catering and environmental hygienic rules
    • frequent thorough hand-wash: especially after using the toilet and before eating
    • using the toilets properly: flushing after using, keeping the toilets clean
    • storing perishable food in the fridge (eggs, milk, meats)
    • not consuming preserved foods
    • consuming meats thoroughly cooked, roasted
    • keeping personal equipment (eg. cutlery) clean
  • vaccinations (eg. in Hungary vaccination against Polio is obligatory!)
  • drinking only clean water In Hungary tap water is of reliable quality!
  • separating infectious patients, disinfecting
  • protection against flies and other disease-spreading insects
  • getting health information, improving health literacy
Downloadable PDF file

food and water-borne diseases

Reference

Népegészségügyi orvostan (Public Health Medicine) (edited by. I. Ember, I. Kiss, K. Cseh), University of Pécs, Medical School, Pécs, 2013, pp.219-297.