Pathogens

650Bacterial infections: Lyme-disease, plaque (= black death)

Viruses: focal tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, Hepatitis B, C, Dengue-fever etc.

Protozoon infections: malaria (= intermittent fever)

651

Of those listed above, practically eradicated in Hungary:

black death, malaria, yellow-fever, Dengue-fever

Transmission

652a

  1. Vector-borne diseases: pathogens are transmitted through the skin to bloodstream by blood-sucker vectors (eg. insects). There they reside and may be transmitted to another person by the vectors.

Blood-sucker vectors (for example):

→ Lyme-disease, tick-borne encephalitis: by tick

→ malaria: Anopheles-mosquito:                        Does not exist in Hungary!

→ black death (plaque): phlea of rats, or the bite of infected rats

  1. Transmission of Hepatitis B,C:

→ by blood (transfusion) and blood products

→ common use of needles (IV drug users)

→ sexually, through injuries of the skin

→ from mother to child during delivery or breastfeeding

Prevention

653a

  • Separation of the infected patient
  • To eradicate disease-spreading vectors
  • Vaccination (eg.: tick-borne -encephalitis, Hepatitis)
  • Hepatitis B:
    • keeping hygienic rules in hospitals, vaccinating and informing health care workers
    • screening pregnant females
    • vulnerable groups (IV drug-abusers, sexworkers): needle exchange programs, vaccination
Downloadable PDF file

 vector-borne diseases

Reference

Népegészségügyi orvostan (Public Health Medicine) (edited by. I. Ember, I. Kiss, K. Cseh), University of Pécs, Medical School, Pécs, 2013, pp.219-297.